Paying zakat is one of the obligations in Islam. There are various types of zakat, such as zakat fitrah that must be paid during the month of Ramadan.
The meaning of zakat itself comes from the Arabic language which is zakat which means clean, pure, fertile, flourishing. Quoted from the page of the National Amil Zakat Agency (Baznas), zakat means a certain part of the property that must be paid by every Muslim when it has reached the specified requirements. As one of the pillars of Islam, zakat is paid to be given to those who are entitled to receive it (asnaf).
The meaning of growth in the meaning of zakat shows that issuing zakat as a reason for the growth and development of wealth, the implementation of zakat results in a lot of rewards. The obligation of zakat for able-bodied Muslims is clearly stated in Surat at-Taubah in verse 60, verse 71, and verse 103.
In the Qur'an, there are 8 groups who are entitled to receive zakat, among others: The poor are people who do not have the property and energy to meet their needs The poor are people who work but do not have enough needs or in a state of deprivation Amil or people who manage zakat.
Mualaf or a person who has just converted to Islam My servant A person who owes Sabilillah or a person who fights in the way of Allah Ibn sabil or is traveling.
Zakat is deducted from the property owned. However, not all property is subject to zakat obligation.
The conditions for the imposition of zakat on assets include
The assets are lawful goods and are obtained in a lawful manner. The assets are fully owned by the owner. The assets are assets that can develop. The assets reach nishab according to the type of assets; The treasure passes through the haul; and the owner of the property has no short-term debt that must be repaid.
Types of zakat Zakat is divided into two, namely zakat mal or zakat on assets and then zakat fitrah (types of zakat).
Distribution of Zakat
Zakat mal or mal zakat is zakat levied on all types of assets, which, in substance or in substance, do not contradict religious provisions. For example, zakat mal consists of money, gold, securities, professional income, and so on. In Indonesia, the collection and management of zakat is regulated in Law No. 23 of 2011 concerning Zakat Management and Regulation of the Minister of Religion No. 31 of 2019.
Zakat can only be charged if it meets the criteria, namely that the property is fully owned, obtained from a halal method, and reaches the nisab.
Calculation of zakat For zakat fitrah, the amount of zakat fitrah payment uses the standard 2.5 kilograms of rice or the equivalent of 3.5 liters of rice or other applicable staples.
Time Zakat Is Issued
This zakat fitrah is paid once a year during the month of Ramadan. In Indonesia, the payment of zakat fitrah is usually made nearing the Eid al-Fitr. For example, for the Jakarta and surrounding areas, if you pay zakat fitrah in cash, it is in the range of IDR 40,000 - 50,000 per person, which is adjusted to the price of 2.5 kilograms of rice.
Meanwhile, the definition of zakat mal and its calculation is to multiply it by 2.5 percent and it has met the nisab requirements. Nisab zakat is the limit between whether the wealth is obliged to zakat or not.
If the property owned by a person has reached the nisab, then the wealth is obliged to pay zakat. If you have not reached the nisab, then zakat is not obligatory. The limit of the nisab itself between one source of zakat and another source of zakat is different from one another.
The nisab for zakat on agriculture is equal to 5 wasaq (653 kg of rice), the nisab for zakat on gold is 20 dinars (85 grams), the nisab for zakat on silver is 200 dirhams (595 grams), the nisab for zakat on trade is 20 dinars (85 grams of gold), and so on.