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Understanding Parenting and Kinds, Getting to Know the Variety of Parenting at Home

Understanding Parenting and Kinds, Getting to Know the Variety of Parenting at Home

Parenting is a way of nurturing and educating children. You must have heard this term very often in everyday life. However, is your understanding of the parenting concept correct? The following is a brief explanation of the meaning of parenting and its types.

 

Get to know parenting

What is your answer when asked what parenting is? You will probably answer that parenting is a way of educating children. The answer is indeed correct, but how to educate like what is meant here?

If you quote the definition from the APA (American Psychological Association), parenting is a pattern of parenting by adults (not limited to biological relationships) which has three main goals:

  1. Ensure that children are always healthy and safe.
  2. Preparing children to grow up to be productive.
  3. Reduce cultural values.


Meanwhile, if you follow the definition from the Ministry of Education and Culture of the Republic of Indonesia, parenting is understood as an interaction that occurs between parents and children with the aim of supporting physical, emotional, social, intellectual, and spiritual development. This definition also explains that parenting occurs since the child is still in the womb until he is an adult.

From these two definitions, it can be concluded that parenting is how to educate children so that they are ready to become adults and stand on their own feet. Parenting includes parenting patterns that support the emotional, physical, social, intellectual, and spiritual development of children.


Types of parenting

After understanding the concept of parenting, you also need to know about the types. Yes, parenting is divided into several types, according to the interaction pattern of parents who take care of children. There are 4 types of parenting that are commonly found in practice, the following is an explanation.


 

Authoritarian parenting

The first type of parenting is authoritarian parenting. In this parenting model, the main characteristic is that parents are authoritarian (governing) to their children. A typical parent who adheres to authoritarian parenting is to assume that all his wishes must be obeyed by the child, feel that he is always right, to the point of limiting the child's space for movement.

Children who grow up in this parenting model are feared to be individuals who tend to be passive. The habit of parents who suppress opinions will make children feel that their opinions and thoughts are meaningless.

 

Baumrind (in Santrock, 2003) reveals that parents who are authoritarian are parents who behave in a restrictive and punishing way that requires children to follow parental orders. Authoritarian parenting also sets firm boundaries and does not provide great opportunities for children to express opinions. Baumrind (Santrock, 2003) also says that authoritarian parenting is an attempt by parents to shape, control and evaluate children's behavior without considering the child's feelings.



Baumrind (in Boyd & Bee, 2006) defines aspects of authoritarian parenting as follows: a. Control. Parents set limits for their children excessively. Empathy Journal, October 2015, Volume 4(4), 320-326 323 b. Affection. Parents in educating and guiding their children do not pay attention to their children's feelings. c. Communication. Parents are few in verbal communication, namely parents do not give their children the opportunity to have an opinion if they have problems to solve. d. Maturity demands. Parents put too much pressure on children to achieve a level of intellectual, personal, social and emotional ability without giving children the opportunity to discuss.



Based on the description above, it can be concluded that the aspects of parenting authoritarian parents are control, affection, communication, and demands of maturity.


Authoritative parenting

Authoritative parenting is a type of parenting that is arguably the opposite of authoritarian parenting. If in authoritarian parenting parents tend to impose their will, in authoritative parenting parents actually provide support for the choices made by children.

This parenting model is considered ideal because it will make children more confident. He will also find it easier to express his own opinion because he is not hindered by parental coercion.

 

Indulgent parenting

The next type of parenting is indulgent parenting. In this parenting model, parents are fully involved in raising children. They will be very permissive of the child's choices or thoughts. This parenting pattern is indeed good for making children confident, but on the other hand they can actually become spoiled because parents are always permissive and obey the children's wishes.

This parenting model can emerge if in childhood parents are always restricted in their movements. Being indulgent and permissive is their way of "repaying" for treating their parents in the past.

 

Neglectful parenting

The last one is neglectful parenting. This type of parenting should be avoided because it can create distance between parents and children. In neglectful parenting, parents are rarely or not involved in parenting at all. The causes can vary, ranging from busyness due to work to other circumstances that force parents to act so.

 

In addition to causing distance between parents and children, neglectful parenting also has the potential to make children become less attentive individuals.

From here you can see that parenting is a difficult process. There is no definite formula for determining what proper parenting looks like. Even so, that doesn't mean you can't learn to be a good parent to your child. The point is to stay motivated and never stop learning!


Bibliography


Abdollahi & Abu Talib. (2013). Perceived parenting styles and emotional intelligence among iranian boy students. Asian journal of social sciences & humanities, 3, 460-467. Ananta, M. D. (2012). The relationship between self-control with the level of aggressiveness in adolescents. Thesis. Jakarta: Bina Nusantara University.


Ariani, R. T. (2014) The relationship between perceptions of authoritarian parenting and aggressiveness in adolescents. Thesis. Semarang: Faculty of Psychology, Diponegoro University. Berkowitz, L. (2003).


Emotional behavior: Knowing the behavior and acts of violence in the environment around us and how to overcome them, book one. Translated by: Hartati Woro Susianti. Jakarta: PPM Publisher.


Boyd, D, & Bee, H. (2006). Lifespan development. Boston, Massachusetts, MA: Pearson Education, inc.


Breakwell, G. M. (1998). Coping with aggressive behavior: Coping with aggressive behavior. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.

Kharie R. R., Pondang L. & Lolong J. (2014). The relationship between parental parenting and smoking behavior in boys aged 15-17 years in Tanah Raja village, Ternate city. Journal of Nursing, 2, 1-7.


Krahe, B. (2005). The social psychology of aggression, aggressive behavior. Translated by Istiwidayanti & Soedjarwo. Jakarta: Erlangga.


Monks. (2004). Developmental psychology: an introduction to its various sections. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press.


Sarwono, S. W. (1994) Adolescent Psychology. Jakarta: Salemba Humanika.


Santrock, J.W. (2003) . Life-Span development: Life span development, vol. 2. Translation: Juda Damanik and Achmad Chusairi. Jakarta: PT Erlangga.


Singh, K. S. (2014). Gender differences in anxiety and aggression among college students. Research Journal of Commerce & Behavioral Science, 3, 5-10.


Shochib, M. (2010). Parenting style. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.


Sumbaga, M. F. (2012). Aggressiveness in terms of Gender in Grade V Elementary School. Thesis. Salatiga: Faculty of Psychology, Satya Wacana Christian University.


Understanding Parenting and Kinds, Getting to Know the Variety of Parenting at Home
Understanding Parenting and Kinds, Getting to Know the Variety of Parenting at Home


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